Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Animal Science

First Advisor

Derek Brake

Second Advisor

Jeffrey Held


acidity, cattle, lysine, silage


Three experiments were conducted to determine bioavailability of 2 lipid coated Lys products (EB and EC). In an initial experiment, Lys disassociation from 2 lipid coated Lys products was best described by a first-order kinetic model after incubation in alfalfa- or corn-silage at 2 different amounts of acidity. Greater amounts of Lys immediately disassociated from EC (15.7%) than EB (4.9%; P < 0.05). Lysine that initially disassociated in corn silage at low pH (0.5%) was less than corn silage at a more neutral pH (18.7%), whereas Lys that initially disassociated in alfalfa silage was not affected (P = 0.26) by pH. Lysine that slowly disassociated from lipid coated Lys differed by product (P = 0.01), and acidity (P < 0.01) affected amounts of Lys that slowly disassociated differently within alfalfa- or corn-silage (pH × silage = 0.02). Greater amounts of Lys disassociated from acidic corn silage (79%) than neutral corn silage (32%; P = 0.01). However, amounts of Lys that slowly disassociated from alfalfa silage was not impacted by acidity (P = 0.40). Additionally, amounts of Lys that did not disassociate (P < 0.04) within 24 h were greater (P < 0.04) when lipid coated Lys was mixed with neutral silages (44%) compared to acidic silages (21%). However, rate of Lys disassociation from lipid coated Lys products was not affected by acidity or exposure to alfalfa- or corn-silage (P = 0.21). In a second experiment, we measured in vitro ammonia release from EB and EC after mixing with alfalfa- or corn-silage at different amounts of acidity with or without monensin. Ammonia release from Lys increased (Quadratic < 0.01) with greater amounts of time; however, differences between in vitro cultures with added Lys and negative control were not detected until 36 h of incubation. By 36 h, all cultures containing added Lys were greater than the negative control. After 42 h of incubation, ammonia release from Lys was greatest from EC and when lipid and Lys-HCl in amounts identical to EB were provided to cultures; EB, Lys-HCl, and lipid and Lys in amounts identical to EC were intermediate. After 48 h of incubation, ammonia release from Lys in EB was greatest and Lys-HCl was least, but EC and amounts of lipid and Lys-HCl identical to either EB or EC were intermediate. Ammonia release from Lys were less from cultures containing monensin after 48 h of incubation. In experiment 3, 9 white-faced ewes (70.1 ± 5.2 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.6 yr) were used to measure Lys bioavailability by a slope-ratio analysis from 2 lipid coated Lys products and Lys-HCl after mixing in corn silage. Plasma Lys concentrations increased (Linear < 0.01) in response to abomasal infusion of Lys, and bioavailability of EB, EC, and Lys- HCl were calculated to be 10.74%, 18.82%, and 11.87%, respectively. However, increases in plasma Lys from EB (Linear = 0.41) and Lys-HCl (Linear = 0.36) were not different from plasma Lys supported by diet alone, but the rate of increase in plasma Lys in response to EC tended (Linear = 0.15) to be greater than plasma Lys levels from diet. Evidently, manufacturing method among lipid coated Lys products as well as physical and chemical characteristics of diet can impact availability of Lys from lipid coated Lys products.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Lysine -- Bioavailability.
Lysine in animal nutrition.
Amino acids in animal nutrition.
Proteins in animal nutrition.
Ruminants -- Feeding and feeds.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 66-71)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


Copyright © 2017 Jessica N. Reiners