Off-campus South Dakota State University users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your South Dakota State University ID and password.

Non-South Dakota State University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis through interlibrary loan.

Document Type

DNP - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)


Graduate Nursing

First Advisor

Robin Arends

Second Advisor

Leann Horsley


body image, Health at Every Size® (HAES®), intuitive eating, college students, Body Appreciation Scale -2


Introduction: A positive body image can be described as accepting, appreciating, and caring for one’s body. Adopting the concepts of Health at Every Size® (HAES®) can positively impact body image and increase overall health, regardless of body weight or size. Methods: A literature review was completed in CINAHL, MEDLINE, APA PsycArticles, Cochrane Library, and PubMed databases. Inclusion criteria included peerreviewed articles published between 2015 to 2020 and written in the English language. Articles written before 2015 and not written in the English language were excluded. Initially, 48 articles were retrieved. Articles were further narrowed down for a total of 15 articles. Main themes include consequences of negative body image, achieving positive body image, Health at Every Size®, eating for well-being, and the body appreciation scale tool. Gaps: A lack of published literature on incorporating HAES® concepts for older adults with comorbidities and chronic medical conditions. A gap in the literature exists of positive body image measures for children. Longitudinal studies have not been performed to determine the lasting effects of HAES® education. Recommendations for Practice: College students should not be encouraged to diet to lose weight as it can create feelings of guilt, shame, and worthlessness. Instead, they should be encouraged to take a holistic approach to health which includes the HAES® principles of weight inclusivity, health enhancement, respectful care, eating for well-being, and life-enhancing movement. The HAES® principles can improve body appreciation and overall health. Positive body image can optimize health and well-being for individuals and the community.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

College students -- Psychology.
College students -- Nutrition.
Body image.

Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


© 2021 Kristin DeWeerd