The Grable and Lytton Risk-Tolerance Scale: A 15-Year Retrospective
Over a decade ago, Grable and Lytton (1999) developed, tested, and published a financial risk-tolerance scale in Financial Services Review that has since been widely used by consumers, financial advisers, and researchers to evaluate a person's willingness to engage in a risky financial behavior. Analysis of data (n = 160,279) spanning the timeframe 2007 to 2013 provides evidence that the risk-tolerance scale's reliability and validity have remained robust since the scale was first developed. The scale's estimated Cronbach's a was 0.77 during this time period. Consistent with the literature, high scale scores (representing a greater willingness to take risks) were found to be associated with equity ownership and negatively related to cash and bond holdings.
Financial Services Review
Kuznaik, Stephen; Rabbani, Abed; Heo, Wookjae; Ruiz-Menjivar, Jorge; and Grable, John E., "The Grable and Lytton Risk-Tolerance Scale: A 15-Year Retrospective" (2015). Consumer Sciences Faculty Publications. 11.