Title

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide + Ethanol Extraction to Improve Organoleptic Attributes of Pea Flour with Applications of Sensory Evaluation, HS-SPME-GC, and GC-Olfactory.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2021

Book Title

Processes

Volume

9

Pages

489

Language

en.

Keywords

Pisum sativum; off-flavor; supercritical carbon dioxide; pea intensity; saponins; pea flour; pea protein; chemometrics

Abstract

Supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol (SC-CO2+EtOH) extraction, was employed as a deflavoring method to improve the sensory properties of pea flours. Furthermore, the impacts of particle size along with extraction on volatile profile and sensory attributes of pea flours were investigated using multiple approaches. These included headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) using a trained sensory panel. Total volatile contents of non-deflavored and deflavored whole pea flour and its fractions were in the range of 7.1 ± 0.3 to 18.1 ± 1.0 µg/g and 0.4 ± 0.1 to 2.7 ± 0.4 µg/g, respectively. The GC-O system showed that the total volatile intensity was in the range of 14.5 to 22.0 and 0 to 3.5, for non-deflavored and deflavored pea flours, respectively. Volatile analyses indicated that 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-nonanol, nonanal, and 2-alkyl methoxypyrazines were major off-aroma compounds. Most off-aroma compounds were not detected in deflavored pea flours. QDA revealed less pea intensity and bitterness of deflavored pea flours. The larger particle size of flours resulted in less off-aroma compounds based on the GC data but more bitterness based on QDA. The SC-CO2+EtOH extraction at optimum conditions and particle size modifications can be a potential technology to improve the organoleptic properties of pulse ingredients.

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