Load Management for Grid-Connection of Household Photovoltaic Systems without Net-Metering
grid-tied photovoltaic systems, load management, self-consumption, net-metering
Grid-tied systems have become the most common type of residential photovoltaic installation and self-consumption has become a key issue to improve cost effectiveness of these systems in the absence of feed-in tariffs and net-metering. The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of load management and battery storage in increasing self-consumption in residential grid connected PV systems without net-metering. Home loads were divided into time manageable, storage capable and non-manageable loads. Shifting the time manageable and storage capable loads from evening hours to PV generation hours increased self-consumption by up to 50%. The addition of batteries to a grid tied PV system can increase self-consumption to 100%, but there was no net cost savings due to the additional cost of the batteries and power conditioning unit. Grid- tied PV systems with no net metering should be designed for daytime loads only to maximize cost effectiveness. A theoretical seasonal analysis shows that self-consumption through load management doubled in winter compared to summer. Load management can be an effective tool to make residential grid-tied PV systems economically beneficial to consumers as feed-in-tariffs are reduced and caps on net-metering are increased.
International Journal on Energy Conservation (RECON)
Sharma, Sangita; Tamrakar, Ujjwol; Tonkoski, Reinaldo; and Galipeau, David W., "Load Management for Grid-Connection of Household Photovoltaic Systems without Net-Metering" (2014). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications. 9.