Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Nutritional Sciences

First Advisor

Kendra K. Kattelmann


beef, DASH, metabolic syndrome


To determine the effects of a diet that provides 30% energy from protein with ½ as lean, red meat on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in humans. This pilot study was a 3- month, randomized, control, intervention trial with 33 participants (Beef-Intervention n=18; DASH-Control n=15) who displayed markers of metabolic syndrome. Registered Dietitians Nutritionists recruited and educated participants on Beef-Intervention Lean Beef Pattern, (30% of energy from protein with ½ as lean red meat, 40% carbohydrate, 30% fat) or DASH-Control dietary pattern, (15% of energy from protein, 55% carbohydrate and 30 % fat). Of the 33 participants who completed the study; 21 were female and 12 male. Bodyweight (BW), fasting serum lipoproteins [total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG)], hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), dietary satisfaction, and general health status were assessed at baseline and post intervention. A three-day diet journal was collected to assess for calorie and macronutrient intake at baseline and post intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine group differences from baseline to post-intervention. Variables were checked for normality and non-normal variables were transformed prior to analysis. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C. There was a significant time x group effect for TG (baseline to post; Beef-Intervention 207±88mg/dL to 148±53; DASH-Control, 200±88 to 193±96.) Both groups had decreased BW and HbA1c from baseline to post. Both groups reported a higher level of current dietary satisfaction, a higher level of general health, increased walking minutes & total increases in physical activity minutes. Lipid parameters, BW, and HbA1C of participants with metabolic syndrome randomized to the Beef-Intervention promoting 30% energy from protein with ½ as lean, red meat had outcomes that were similar or improved to those randomized to DASH-Control diet. The implication is, although larger studies in greater numbers still need to be done, that the inclusion of LRM in calorie-reduced diets may be used short term as an alternative to the DASH diet for those with MetS for weight and TG reduction.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Metabolic syndrome.

Beef -- Health aspects.



Includes bibliographical references (pages 50-55)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


Copyright © 2016 Kristin L. Olson