Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Dairy Science


The cheese industry has become by far the largest user of milk for manufacturing. In 1978, cheese production utilized a fourth of the total market supply of milk, up from less than an eighth in 1960 (4). Rising consumer incomes and changing lifestyles and eating habits have increased cheese consumption and sales by 60% since 1960 (21). In the last ten years, annual per capita consumption of cured cheese has increased from 11.6 lb to 17.1 lb (45). Economists state that the cheese market will continue to expand through the 1980's (7, 21, 68). Manufacturing cultured dairy products can be a very profitable business, or sustained losses can occur. Over the past two decades, retail cheese prices have increased faster than prices of other foods and dairy products; while consumption has doubled. However, rising labor, raw material, and equipment costs have forced cheese producers into a very narrow profit margin. Maximizing product yields often makes the difference whether a manufacturer-processor is successful. And since yields and profits can be synonymous, it is imperative that maximum yields are obtained. However, in recent years, cheesemakers have observed a gradual decrease in product yields (81). One of the primary reasons cheese yields have been steadily on the decline is the change in the predominant breed of cow (67). Years ago, Jersey and Guernsey numbers were higher than now. These breeds traditionally produce milk with higher solids-not-fat to total solids ratios than Holstein milk (50). Thus, more protein was available for cheesemaking on a unit volume basis. Yee (81) stated that since 1957 the solids content of milk has decreased, due mostly to increased breeding emphasis on high milk production and increase in number of the Holstein breed. Consequently, the current lower solids milk is resulting in less than 9 to 10% cheese yields that were common twenty years ago (2). In order to obtain the best yield and quality of cheddar cheese, the optimum casein-to-fat ratio in milk should be at least .70 parts casein to 1.00 parts fat (32). In South Dakota, the actual ratio is approximately .62, with total protein levels as low as 2.80% (81). Commercial cheesemaking studies have indicated a possible increase in yield when using direct-to-the-vat concentrated cultures (44). Supporting this is the fact that the whey generally contains a lower level of solids when these cultures are used. The reason for a possible increase in yield may be higher pH during ripening, renneting, and cooking of the cheese curd prior to drawing the whey. At higher pH, calcium salts and associated compounds are more insoluble, resulting in less acid soluble material being drawn off with the whey (57). However, the benefits claimed for Superstart cultures have not been substantiated under controlled conditions. Therefore, one objective of this research was to determine yield differences, if any, when using Superstart concentrated cultures vs conventional bulk set cultures. Another objective was to evaluate and compare compositional and organoleptic characteristics in cheese manufactured using both types of starter cultures.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Cheddar cheese
Dairy processing


Includes bibliographical references (pages 56-61)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


In Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted

Included in

Dairy Science Commons