Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Dairy Science


In an 18 mo study antibiotic containing mastitic milk was collected from infected cows and fermented naturally for a minimum of 7 days at ambient temperature. Fermentation of antibiotic containing mastitic milk increased titratable acidity from 0.209% to 0.650% and decreased pH from 7.02 to 5.48. Fermentation decreased crude protein from 3.7% to 3.5% and increased NPN (% TN) from 6.0% to 8.4%. Penicillin was detected at a concentration of 1.2 IU/ml in the first milk after treatment and 0.01 IU/ml when fermented. Species of pathogenic organisms isolated from fresh and fermented milk were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Proteus species, Pseudomonas species, Enterobacter species and Klebsiella species. Holstein calves were fed either fermented antibiotic containing mastitic milk or whole milk for 6 wk then fed only dry feed for an additional 2 wk. Calf growth and dry feed intake was not different between treatments for the 8 wk trial. Female calf weights at 3, 6, and 12 mo of age were similar for both treatments. During the first 4 wk of the trial feed intake, minimum, and mean temperature accounted for 25.8% of the variation in body weight gain. From 5 to 8 wk of age and overall dry feed intake accounted for 38.7% and 44.6% of the variation in body weight gain. Fermented antibiotic mastitic milk treatment calves experienced 294% more scour and respiratory problems and 50% less mortality than the control treatment. Feeding fermented antibiotic containing mastitic milk appeared to be an acceptable alternative milk source for newborn dairy calves without significant effect on weight gain or feed intake, but health problems were more frequent.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds
Cattle -- Housing -- Heating and ventilation
Solar heating


Includes bibliographical references (pages 51-59, 146-149)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


In Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted


Contents: Pt. 1. Feeding value of fermented antibiotic containing mastitic milk for holstein calves--pt.2. Solar energy in various designs of outdoor calf hutches.

Included in

Dairy Science Commons