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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Vikram V. Mistry


Cheddar cheeses were made from milks supplemented with ultrafiltered milk to 4.57 and 5.93% protein and from milks without supplementation to serve as controls (3.18% protein). Milks were standardized (casein-to-fat ratio of 0.7) with unhomogenized cream or homogenized (6.9/3.45 MPa) cream. The six treatments were replicated five times. Rennet clotting time decreased with protein concentration and homogenization of cream increased it. k20, the time to reach an amplitude of 20 mm on formagraph after rennet clotting time, decreased (i.e., rate of curd firming increased) with homogenization and concentration a40 , the amplitude on formagraph after 40 min of rennet addition, increased (i.e., curd firmness increased) with protein and homogenization. Cheese moisture ranged from 37.29 to 39.37% and fat in dry matter from 52.9 to 53.7%. Cheese yield adjusted to 37% moisture and 1.5% salt and adjusted yield per kg protein increased significantly with both protein concentration and homogenization. Fat recovered in cheese decreased with concentration in unhomogenized treatments while it increased in homogenized treatments. Protein recovery increased with protein concentration. A sensory panel did not detect any significant difference in flavor, flavor intensity and body and texture with protein supplementation, but there was a significant increase in the body and texture scores with homogenization. Hardness of cheeses increased with concentration. Homogenization increased meltability of cheese with age. Free oil and free oil on fat basis decreased with homogenization and concentration. These two parameters also decreased with cheese age with a larger decrease for the homogenized treatments.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Cheddar cheese
Homogenized milk


Includes bibliographical references (pages 37-50)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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