Off-campus South Dakota State University users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your South Dakota State University ID and password.

Non-South Dakota State University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis through interlibrary loan.


Joan Clapper

Document Type

Dissertation - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Biology and Microbiology

First Advisor

Ellzabeth Droke

Second Advisor

Jane Christopher-Hennings


Natural induction modes of chronic inflammation associated with obesity (CIAO) are difficult to characterize and even more difficult to replicate in humans due to interand intra-variation in individuals and initiating conditions. Variables that can influence resistance to the development of CIAO include internal and external factors (e.g. environmental elements, omnivore diet, gastrointestinal tract breach, age, metabolic and immune status, and genetics). Microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation from the gastrointestinal tract into systemic circulation may play a role in the development of diseases characterized by CIAO. Therefore, markers or characteristics of an altered immune response induced by LPS may provide some clues to the development of CIAO. Translational medical research relies upon animal models for studying complex human conditions, such as CIAO. Simpler rodent models assist in unraveling certain biological connections, but their predictive value for devising appropriate and effective treatments for human disease or health condition is often lacking. Swine are often used in translational biomedical research because they share many similar characteristics with humans, thus, swine are proving invaluable in bridging the gap between rodents and humans. Evidence from naturally occurring chronic inflammation (CI) has led to the possibility of experimentally inducing CI in swine via LPS. A porcine model of chronic inflammation may offer an intermediate model of study between rodents and humans. Limitations exist in analytical methods used to measure small changes in gene expression of inflammatory mediators reflective of CI. Small changes may be disregarded as background noise due to the limitations of sensitivity and specificity inherent to a specific assay. As a result, current efforts are underway to develop and characterize an exogenous reference control to be used to correct for sample-to-sample variation in real time PCR. Additionally, the ongoing development of suitable analytical methods is of great importance and a critical need, which would further assist in the development of an appropriate translational animal model.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Swine as laboratory animals
Polymerase chain reaction


Includes bibliographical references



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


In Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted