Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

David E. Davis


This thesis explores the trend of WIC (Women Infants and Children) and non WIC breastfeeding rates in U.S.A. WIC is a special supplemental nutrition program by USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). Time and panel data series have been used for 50 states of U.S.A and D.C (District of Columbia) to analyze the common trend between the two breastfeeding rates (time series data for 35 years and panel data series for 28 years). To determine the common trend, I used residual based cointegration for time series and recently developed error correction based cointegration for panel data series. I also constructed error correction models for both data series to evaluate the speed of adjustments between the two breastfeeding rates. The results suggest the prevalence of a common trend and moreover an upward trend for WIC and non WIC breastfeeding rates which indicates that both breastfeeding rates are growing together over time. The speed of adjustments toward equilibrium is faster in the time series data compared to the panel series data.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (U.S.)
Breastfeeding -- United States -- Statistics.
Breastfeeding -- Government policy -- United States.
Breastfeeding -- Economic aspects -- United States.
Infants -- Nutrition -- United States.
Breastfeeding promotion -- United States.
Panel analysis.
Time-series analysis.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 45-50)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


In Copyright - Educational Use Permitted

Included in

Economics Commons