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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Biology and Microbiology

First Advisor

Feng Li


Influenza D virus (FLUDV) was isolated from diseased pigs with respiratory disease symptoms in 2011, and since then the new virus has also been spread to cattle. Besides cows and pigs, little is known about the susceptibility of other agricultural animals and poultry to FLUDV. This study was designed to determine if other farm animals such as goats and sheep are possible hosts to this newly emerging influenza virus. 648 goat and sheep serum samples were collected from 141 small ruminant from different geographical locations in the United States and Canada. Serum samples were examined using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and the sheep and goat samples were further analyzed using the serum neutralization assay. Results of this study showed FLUDV antibodies were detected in 13.5% (17/126) of the sampled sheep farms, and 5.2% (29/557) of tested sheep serum samples were positive for FLUDV antibodies. For the goat results, the FLUDV antibodies were detected in 13.3% (2/15) of the sampled farms, and 8.8% (8/91) of the tested goat serum samples were positive for FLUDV antibodies. Our data demonstrated that sheep and goat are susceptible to FLUDV virus and multiple states in U.S. have this virus infection already in these two species. This new xii finding highlights a need for future surveillance of FLUDV virus in small ruminants, which are important sources of meat, milk, and wool throughout the world

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Influenza viruses
Sendai virus
Goats--Virus diseases
Sheep--Virus diseases


Includes bibliographical references ( pages 41-42)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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