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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Animal Science

First Advisor

Stacy Scramlin


Processed Meat Quality, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles, Fresh Sausage, Emulsified Sausage


The objective of this study was to include varying levels of DDGS in swine diets to measure the effect on the emulsion stability, batter consistency, fatty acid composition, and palatability characteristics of fresh and emulsified sausage products. Forty-eight crossbred pigs were randomly placed in 16 pens (n=16) and were feed diets containing 0% DDGS (CN), 15% DDGS, 30% DDGS, and 45% DDGS. Pigs were harvested with an average weight of 265 lbs. Pre-rigor trim was removed from the shoulder and pooled by pen for fresh sausage (FS) production. Rigor trim was removed from the shoulder and pooled by pen for bologna production. Fresh sausages were evaluated for subjective sensory color, Minolta L*, a*, and b*, TBAR absorbance, and fat smearing score during a shelf life retail display. Bologna was evaluated for subjective sensory color and palatability characteristics, Minolta L*, a*, and b*, TBAR absorbance, and compression analysis during the shelf life retail display period. Proximate analysis was conducted to ensure a normal distribution of fat content among pen. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with pen used as the experimental unit utilizing the MIXED procedure of SAS. The FS results show differences in Minolta L* (P < 0.0001) and a treatment x day interaction (P=0.0113) of TBAR absorbance between treatments. Changes in Minolta L* values indicated differences in fat smearing with DDGS treatments having decreased L* values. Furthermore, FS had an increased amount of lipid oxidation as noted by increased TBARS absorbances over time. Furthermore, differences were seen in bologna samples for Minolta L*(P<0.0001), a* (P<0.0001), and b*(P<0.0001), sensory discoloration (P=0.0189) and desirability (P=0.0301), and TBARS (P=0.0332) absorbance across treatments. The trained panelist did not detect differences in bologna lean color (P=0.1731) or palatability characteristics of juiciness (P=0.5275), texture (P=0.1133), rancidity (P=0.2633), off flavor (P=0.5278), or desirability (P=0.1055). Therefore, for FS and bologna the addition of an increased level of DDGS in pig diets will cause detrimental effects in objective and sensory color scores, with a higher amount of oxidation as reflected by increased TBARS absorbance. However, bologna palatability characteristics will not be significantly affected.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Sausages Pork -- Quality
Distillers feeds
Swine -- Feeding and feeds


Includes bibliographical references ( pages vii-xiv)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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