Off-campus South Dakota State University users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your South Dakota State University ID and password.

Non-South Dakota State University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis through interlibrary loan.

Document Type

Dissertation - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Wildlife and Fisheries Science

First Advisor

Michael L. Brown


Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information Systems were used to create lake maps of Lake Kampeska and Lake Enemy Swim, South Dakota. Lake Kampeska had a surface area of 2,054 ha, mean depth of 2.3 m, and a maximum depth of 5 m. Bottom differentiation at Lake Kampeska was limited. Lake Enemy Swim had increased complexity when compared to Lake Kampeska. Surface area of Lake Enemy Swim was 884 ha, mean depth was 4.8 m, and maximum depth was 10 m. Gill nets were used to determine the spatial and seasonal distributions of fishes in Lake Kampeska and Lake Enemy Swim. Significant (P<0.05) differences between littoral and limnetic gill net catch rates were identified during the spring at Lake Kampeska for walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, yellow perch Perea flavescens , and white suckers Catostomus commersoni. At Lake Enemy Swim, significant differences between littoral and limnetic sites occurred for yellow perch (spring and autumn) and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris (summer). Differences between median lengths of littoral and limnetic caught fishes were identified for white suckers at Lake Kampeska and yellow perch and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu at Lake Enemy Swim. Significant seasonal differences in gill net catch rates and median lengths were identified at both lakes. Small fishes were sampled by shoreline seining monthly (May through October) during the day and night at Lake Kampeska in 1995 and 1997 and at Lake Enemy Swim in 1996 and 1997 and by monthly nighttime open-water bottom trawling at Lake Kampeska -1995 and Lake Enemy Swim - 1996. Few significant differences between night and day seine catches at Lake Kampeska were observed. Richness and diversity values were similar between sampling periods at Lake Kampeska. The number of significant differences between day and night seine catches and differences in species richness and diversity values were greater at Lake Enemy Swim. When sampling fishes with seines, nighttime seining should be considered, especially when seining clear waters. Open-water trawling did not appear to be an efficient method for sampling small open-water fishes at Lake Enemy Swim. Food habit data from walleyes and white bass Marone chrysops were examined at Lake Kampeska and from walleyes and northern pike Esox lucius at Lake Enemy Swim. At Lake Kampeska, 126 walleyes and 85 white bass stomachs contained food. Walleyes consumed fishes dunng all seasons: generally invertebrates were consumed only in the spring. Zooplankton, fishes, and crayfishes Cambarus sp. dominated white bass diets at Lake Kampeska. At Lake Enemy Swim, 126 walleye stomachs and 56 northern pike stomachs contained food. Yellow perch were the dominant food item of both walleyes and northern pike. Ultrasonic telemetry was used to determine walleye monthly and diel locations and movement rates. At Lake Kampeska, 35 walleyes were implanted with transmitters during 1995 and 32 walleyes were implanted in 1996 at Lake Enemy Swim. At each lake, walleyes with transmitters were separated into two length groups: at Lake Kampeska the small length group was 341 to 433 mm TL and the large group 492 to 735 mm TL and at Lake Enemy Swim the small length group was 356 - 484 mm TL and the large group 540 to 720 mm TL. At Lake Kampeska differences in movement rates were identified between lengths and sexes and at Lake Enemy Swim movement rates differed by sexes only. Walleye movement rates at Lake Kampeska were greater than at Lake Enemy Swim which likely relates to lake morphometry. Differences in diel movement rates were more apparent at Lake Enemy Swim. A general trend of least movement during the day and greatest movement during crepuscular and nighttime periods was observed. Seasonal changes in location depths and distance from shore were identified at both lakes. Depths and distance from shore tended to be least in the spring and greatest during the summer months. At Lake Kampeska, location depths of walleyes with transmitters rarely varied. but at Lake Enemy Swim monthly differences in depth use were common between lengths and sexes. During the summer, walleyes tended to be shallowest during the night. At neither lake was a strong onshore-offshore diel pattern observed. Correlations between movements, depth, and distance from shore and environmental parameters were weak. Information gained during the project was used to predict sites where walleyes would be expected to be located. The predicted sites and randomly selected sites were gill netted seasonally to test for the presence of walleyes. The predicted sites did not yield higher catches than the random sites. Use of predicted sites likely would be more crucial during low walleye densities.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Walleye (Fish) -- South Dakota -- Kampeska, Lake -- Geographical distribution
Walleye (Fish) -- South Dakota -- Enemy Swim, Lake -- Geographical distribution
Walleye (Fish) -- Seasonal distribution -- South Dakota -- Kampeska, Lake
Walleye (Fish) -- Seasonal distribution -- South Dakota -- Enemy Swim, Lake


Includes bibliographical references (pages 157-166)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


Copyright 1989 Brian G. Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.