Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Health and Nutritional Sciences

First Advisor

Matthew Vukovich


children, linear periodization, plyometric training, resistance training, undulating periodization


Recreational and competitive youth (≤ 16 years old) sport participation over the years has increased in recent years. As a result of increased sport participation an emphasis on sport performance training and more particularly resistance training along with plyometric training have been on the rise. Resistance training and plyometric training can improve sports performance, rehabilitate injuries, prevent injuries, and enhance long-term health in adolescent athletes. Resistance training can be periodized numerous different ways, but the most popular training methods are traditional periodization, undulating periodization, and plyometric training. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined studies that compared traditional periodization, undulating periodization, plyometric training to each other and/or a control group. Studies examined the effects of specific resistance training protocols on sports performance outcomes such as strength, speed and power. The systematic search of PubMed revealed 23 articles that were appropriate for the inclusion criteria. The current meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the following: 1) training protocols showed greater improvements in performance outcomes when compared to a control group except for undulating periodization on power performance outcomes and plyometric training for strength on strength outcomes, 2) traditional periodization showed greater improvements on strength and power performance outcomes when compared to undulating periodization, 3) traditional periodization showed significant improvements in strength performance outcomes when compared to plyometric training but not speed and power performance outcomes. The studies included training programs that were short in nature and consisted of individuals < 16 years old and >16 years old that were either trained or novice. Unfortunately, there were no articles that compared undulating periodization to a control group for power performance outcomes, traditional vs undulating periodization for speed performance outcomes or no studies that compared undulating periodization vs plyometric training on all performance outcomes. Limitations of the current study are the sample size of articles reviewed, articles featured individuals >16 years old, and novice and experienced individuals. Improvements in sport performance outcomes can be enhanced by participation in resistance training. From the review traditional periodization provides greater improvement than undulating periodization on performance outcomes. The evidence is inconclusive when comparing traditional periodization to plyometric training on performance outcomes other than strength.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Periodization training.
Child athletes.
Teenage athletes.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


Rights Statement

In Copyright