Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Dwayne A. Rollag


Odor is an important factor in evaluating the quality of water. The presence of odor in water can impair its use for drinking, cooking and recreation. Waters having odors are not necessarily unhealthful to drink, but often are considered so by consumers. Odors in drinking water supplies originate from natural and/or man-made sources. Man-made odors can be derived from organic and inorganic chemicals used or produced by industry. These odors can come directly from odorous chemicals such as phenols or pyridines. Or, the odors can result from the anaerobic decomposition of chemicals. Sometimes certain chemicals might react with other constituents in the water to produce odor. Odors from natural causes generally are derived from vegetation, hydrogen sulfide and algae. With such a wide variety of causative substances, the most suitable treatment method is not easy to select. Commonly-used methods include air-stripping, activated carbon adsorption and oxidation using aeration, chlorination or potassium permanganate. Ozone, used extensively in Europe for many years, has become increasingly more popular in the U.S. in recent years. The City of Fairmont uses the water from Budd Lake for its primary supply. This small lake experiences seasonal water quality changes. The seasons that produce the poorest quality in terms of odor, are late summer when excessive algae growth occurs, and early spring from the accumulation of gases entrapped by the ice cover. At these times relatively expensive treatment with activated carbon am potassium permanganate is required for odor control and even with these measures the results are not always satisfactory. The objectives of this thesis are as follows. 1. To determine the effectiveness of ozonation in reducing the odor levels of the Fairmont surface water supply. 2. To determine the 100st economical ozone dosage and contact time for effective odor control. A small ozonation pilot plant was used in these investigations which also include ancillary studies on the effect of ozonation on trihalomethane formation, chlorine demand, total organic carbon (organic matter), flocculation efficiency, am the costs of ozonation reported by Hoellein.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Water -- Purification -- Ozonization


Water treatment plants -- Minnesota -- Fairmont



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University