Off-campus South Dakota State University users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your South Dakota State University ID and password.

Non-South Dakota State University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis through interlibrary loan.

Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Physical Education

First Advisor

James E. Lidstone


32 female college students with prior softball experience were oriented in a familiarization session, then pretested on overhand throwing accuracy using Shick's target for repeated throws. 20 throws of 30 mph or greater from a distance of 40 ft constituted a test. Scores from the pretest were used to pair subjects of comparable skill and randomly assign them to either the control or experimental group. The control group did not meet again until the posttest. The experimental group (visuo-motor behavior rehearsal, VMBR) experienced 18 sessions, 5 days/week for 4 weeks, of VMBR training devised by Suinn. Upon completion of VMBR training, posttests were conducted with all subjects. 10 days of no activity was followed by a final retention test. Throwing accuracy was compared between the VMBR group and the control group at all three testing intervals (pretest, posttest, retention test) and both groups were examined to see if they had changed significantly over time. The data were analyzed using a 2 x 3 factorial analysis of variance procedure with repeated measures. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, there was no significant difference in gain between the experimental and control groups in terms of throwing accuracy.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Softball -- Study and teaching

Imagery (Psychology) -- Physiological aspects

Sports -- Psychological aspects



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University