Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




Herbicides have become an important asset to the farmer since the discovery of 2,4-D as a useful weed killer. Although herbicides are a relatively new and useful tool, various hazards are associated with their use. Drift and volatility are of primary concern. Air pollution is recognized as an environmental detriment to both plants and animals. The prevention of herbicide drift and volatility is necessary to maintain an environment suitable for many plant habitats. Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) is used to control broadleaf weeds in corn, small grains, lawns, and rangelands. Sometimes nontarget areas adjacent to crops are affected seriously because of dicamba treatments. Particle drift and possibly vapor drift may be responsible for the injury to nontarget plants. Compounds mixed with a herbicide to enhance phytotoxicity may also inhibit drift of minute herbicide particles and vapor. A compound mixed with a herbicide either to reduce drift or to enhance phytotoxicity is called an additive. Limited information exists about the drift and phytotoxicity of dicamba when applied in combination with additives. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis were to determine the influence of additives on phytotoxicity, particle drift, and vapor drift of dicamba.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Herbicides -- Toxicology

Spraying and dusting residues in agriculture

Plants -- Effect of herbicides on



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University