Author

Hossein Samie

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date

1984

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Animal Science

Abstract

A total of 3780 male and 216 female large white Nicholas turkeys were used in four experiments to determine the effect of different feed additives on turkey performance. In the first experiment, the effect of 60, 120 or 240 ppm Cu on the growth of male turkeys was examined as affected by 75, 100 or 125% of the suggested NRC (1977) levels of sulfur amino acids (S-AA). The second experiment was designed to study the effect of 60 ppm Cu, Neo-Terramycin at 200 gm per ton, (80 gm Terramycin after 12 weeks) and Zn- bacitracin at 50 gm per ton (25 gm after 8 weeks) on the growth of male turkeys. The turkeys received either a low protein dietary series or a high protein series. The low protein diets provided either 75 or 125% of the NRC (1977) levels of S-AA and the high protein diets contained 125% of the NRC levels of S-AA. In the third experiment, the effects of Neo-Terramycin at 200 gm per ton (80gm after 12 weeks) and a combination of Neo-Terramycia and 120 ppm Cu on the growth of male turkeys were studied. In this experiment, turkeys received either a low protein dietary series or low protein series which contained 20% wheat bran. These two series were isonitrogenous but not isocaloric. In the last experiment, both male and female turkeys were used. The effects of virginiamycin at 20 gram per ton in the presence of 0.025% amprolium added to normal protein diets were studied. Individual weights and group feed consumption data were obtained at 4-week intervals. Liver and blood samples were taken from turkeys in Experiment 1 to determine the effect of copper on the copper content of liver and blood. The results from these experiments show that 75% of the NRC recommended levels of S-AA did not support optimum growth rate of poults up to 12 weeks of age. Poults receiving 100% of S-AA performed as well as those receiving the 125% level. After 12 weeks of age, the 75% NRC level of S-AA allowed turkey body weights to be comparable to those receiving 100 or 125% S-AA. Addition of 60 ppm Cu stimulated the growth rate at 8 weeks of age 120 or 240 ppm Cu caused a growth depression up to this age. No significant differences due to the addition of any level of copper were observed after 8 weeks of age. The liver or blood copper content were not affected by any levels of copper used in this experiment. In the second experiment, turkeys on the high protein diet were heavier than those on the low protein diet. Of those poults receiving the low protein diets, those fed 125% of the NRC recommended levels of S-AA were heavier than those fed the 75% level of S-AA up to 16 weeks of age. Addition of Cu did not have any effect on turkey body weights. Neo-Terramycin up to 12 weeks of age and bacitracin up to 8 weeks of age were effective in improving growth. The results from the third experiment showed that turkeys on diets without the third experiment showed that turkeys on diets without wheat bran were significantly heavier than those on diets containing 20% wheat bran up to 24 weeks of age. Addition of Neo-Terramycin or a combination of Neo-Terramycin and copper significantly stimulated growth up to 8 weeks of age. There were no differences between the weights of poults receiving Neo-Terramycin alone or the weights when Neo-Terramycin combined with copper. The results of the last experiment show that Virginiamycin in the presence of amprolium improved body weights of both sexes of turkeys up to 16 weeks of age with no effect on male body weights after this age. Although there were beneficial trends, no significant differences were demonstrated in overall feed conversion due to the addition of any of the feed additives used in these studies. Turkeys on high protein diets converted feed 21% more efficiently than those on low protein diets.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Turkeys -- Feeding and feeds

Format

application/pdf

Number of Pages

109

Publisher

South Dakota State University

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