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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Agricultural Engineering

First Advisor

James Julson


The goal of the research was to determine the effects of adding synthetic antioxidants to irradiated fresh ground beef. Synthetic antioxidants were successfully incorporated at 1% of the ground beef weight using propylene glycol as a carrier. The antioxidants were added at 0.02% of the sample fat content. Ground beef was irradiated to target doses of 0, 1.5, 3, and 4.5 kiloGrays with a Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator. The average doses measured were 0, 1.6, 3.0 and 4.2 kGy. Propyl gallate (PG) reduced lipid oxidation by 41% when compared to the control over all days and doses. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and S3 (a combination of BHA, PG, and citric acid, Universal Oil Products, Inc.) treatments reduced the lipid oxidation by approximately 32%. The physical properties, color, and pH of patties irradiated to similar doses (0, 1.9, 3, and 4.7 kGy), were not greatly affected by the treatments. Although some effects were significant sources of variation, no apparent trends were discernable.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Irradiated beef




South Dakota State University