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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Graduate Nursing

First Advisor

Gloria Craig


mental depression, depression in old age, vitamin D in the body


Major depression is a serious health problem facing in any individuals each year. Individuals living in the northern hemisphere of the midwestern United States are more likely to present with depressive behaviors during the winter months than residents in the southern states. It is hypothesized that these depressive behaviors are related to a drop in an individual's vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations. The first hypothesis is that there will be no overall change in scores of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) between the three treatment groups at baseline. The second hypothesis states that individuals randomized to receive vitamin-D fortified cheese will report fewer depressive behaviors than individuals who received no supplemental vitamin D at the conclusion of the study. The third hypothesis is that there will be a gender difference seen between the depressive scores with the females reporting being more depressed than the males.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Depression, Mental -- South Dakota.
Depression in old age -- South Dakota.
Vitamin D in the body.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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