dairy heiferts, diets, by-products, heifer-feeding programs
The goals of a heifer-feeding program are to reach a target freshening weight by 24 months of age or less, to improve feed efficiency and reduce costs, and to do this while allowing the animals to express their full genetic potential for milk production. Feed costs remain the single largest expense in raising dairy heifers; therefore, a feed cost reduction that does not sacrifice production improves net income. Feed costs may be reduced by the use of locally available by-product feeds. Nutritional composition of by-product feeds, however, may vary from the animal’s nutritional requirements, making the incorporation of such feeds into the diets challenging.
Kalscheur, K. F. and Garcia, A. D., "Use of By-products in Growing Dairy Heifer Diets" (2004). SDSU Extension Extra Archives. 128.