zimmerman pine moth, south dakota
The Zimmerman pine moth is a serious pest of pines throughout the United States. There actually are three different species of insects referred to as Zimmerman pine moth: Dioryctria zimmermani, D. tumicolella, and D. ponderosae. Dioryctria zimmermani and D. tumicolella are the two most commone Zimmerman pine moths in South Dakota, particularly in the eastern half of the state. The two insects have a similar life cycle and appearance. The following information relates to these two insects, not to D. ponderosae.
McLeod, Murdick; Ball, John; and Graper, David, "Zimmerman Pine Moth Control in South Dakota" (1992). SDSU Extension Extra Archives. 209.