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registration, Landsat-8, Sentinel-2, area-based least squares matching, feature based matching
Moderate spatial resolution satellite data from the Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2A MSI sensors together offer 10 m to 30 m multi-spectral reflective wavelength global coverage, providing the opportunity for improved combined sensor mapping and monitoring of the Earth’s surface. However, the standard geolocated Landsat-8 OLI L1T and Sentinel-2A MSI L1C data products are currently found to be misaligned. An approach for automated registration of Landsat-8 OLI L1T and Sentinel-2A MSI L1C data is presented and demonstrated using contemporaneous sensor data. The approach is computationally efficient because it implements feature point detection across four image pyramid levels to identify a sparse set of tie-points. Area-based least squares matching around the feature points with mismatch detection across the image pyramid levels is undertaken to provide reliable tie-points. The approach was assessed by examination of extracted tie-point spatial distributions and tie-point mapping transformations (translation, affine and second order polynomial), dense-matching prediction-error assessment, and by visual registration assessment. Two test sites over Cape Town and Limpopo province in South Africa that contained cloud and shadows were selected. A Landsat-8 L1T image and two Sentinel-2A L1C images sensed 16 and 26 days later were registered (Cape Town) to examine the robustness of the algorithm to surface, atmosphere and cloud changes, in addition to the registration of a Landsat-8 L1T and Sentinel-2A L1C image pair sensed 4 days apart (Limpopo province). The automatically extracted tie-points revealed sensor misregistration greater than one 30 m Landsat-8 pixel dimension for the two Cape Town image pairs, and greater than one 10 m Sentinel-2A pixel dimension for the Limpopo image pair. Transformation fitting assessments showed that the misregistration can be effectively characterized by an affine transformation. Hundreds of automatically located tie-points were extracted and had affine-transformation root-mean-square error fits of approximately 0.3 pixels at 10 m resolution and dense-matching prediction errors of similar magnitude. These results and visual assessment of the affine transformed data indicate that the methodology provides sub-pixel registration performance required for meaningful Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2A MSI data comparison and combined data applications.
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Yan, Lin; Roy, David P.; Zhang, Hankui; Li, Jian; and Huang, Haiyan, "An Automated Approach for Sub-Pixel Registration of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) Imagery" (2016). GSCE Faculty Publications. 33.