Development and validation of the Full Restaurant Evaluation Supporting a Healthy (FRESH) Dining Environment Audit
The Full Restaurant Evaluation Supporting a Healthy (FRESH) Dining Environment Audit was developed and validated to assess cafeterias and restaurants (n = 362). Each scale item was scored using a 5-point semantic-differential rating (1 = little/no options/support to 5 = extensive options/high support for healthy food selection). Statistical analysis included factor analysis, analysis of variance, and correlations. The Healthfulness of Foods (HF) sub-scale assessed menu descriptions to determine healthful foods availability (12 items, α = .82, possible = 60). The Dining Environmental Supports (ES) sub-scale assessed nutrition information/labeling, signage/ posters, and portion/cup sizes (eight items, α = .78; possible = 40). Cafeterias consistently scored higher than other restaurant types on HF (29.45 ± 12.17 SD) and ES (22.10 ± 5.27 SD). Convergent validity was confirmed (n = 91; HF: r = .854, p ≤ .001 and ES: r = .529, p ≤ .01). The FRESH audit is a simple tool that effectively assessed differences in the healthfulness of foods and environmental supports between a variety of dining venues.
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition
DOI of Published Version
Horacek, Tanya M. PhD, RD; Yildirim, Elif Dede; Simon, Marlei; Bredbenner, Carol Byrd; White, Adrienne A.; Shelnutt, Karla P.; Olfert, Melissa D.; Morrell, Jesse; Matthews, Anne E.; Kidd, Tandalayo; Kattelmann, Kendra; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; and Brown, Onikia, "Development and validation of the Full Restaurant Evaluation Supporting a Healthy (FRESH) Dining Environment Audit" (2018). Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications. 158.