Relaxation studies were conducted on specimens of bovine cancellous bone at post-yield strains. Stress and strain were measured for 1000 s and the relaxation modulus was determined. Fifteen cylindrical, cancellous bone specimens were removed from one bovine femur in the anterior–posterior direction. The relaxation modulus was found to be a function of strain. Therefore cancellous bone is non-linearly viscoelastic/viscoplastic in the plastic region. A power law regression was ﬁt to the relaxation modulus data. The multiplicative constant was found to be statistically related through a power law relationship to both strain (p < 0.0005) and apparent density (p < 0.0005) while the power coefﬁcient was found to be related through a power law relationship, E(t, ε)= A(ε)t-n(ε), to strain (p < 0.0005), but not apparent density.
Journal of Biomechanics
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Burgers, Travis A.; Lakes, Roderic S.; Garcia-Rodriguez, Sylvana; Piller, Geoffrey R.; and Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn, "Post-yield Relaxation Behavior of Bovine Cancellous Bone" (2009). Mechanical Engineering Engineering Faculty Publications. 9.