Do weeds that emerge later in the season justify additional control costs'? If crop yield is not reduced or few or no seeds arc added to the soil seed hank, then no control may he needed. Eight weed species were sown in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean I Glycine max (L.) Mcrr.l (i) before crop emergence, (ii) at crop emergence, (iii) at V-1, and (iv) at V-2 stages of crop growth in 2002 and 2003. Weed seed was sown close to the crop row and thinned to 1.3 plants m 2• Weed growth and fecundity were influenced by species, time of planting, and year. Only barnyarclgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), rcclroot pigwced (Amaranthus retniflexus L.), and vclvetlcaf (Abutilon theophrasti L.) survived to produce seed. Plants from the pre-emergence seeding had the largest canopy and produced the most seeds. Harnyardgrass had maximum canopy cover in early .July in corn and late .Inly in soybean hut only produced seed in corn. Rcclroot pigweecl and vclvctleaf had maximum canopy cover in late August or midSeptember, and some plants from most seeding elates survived and produced seed in both corn and soybean. However, plants that grew from seed sown at V-1 and V-2 crnp grnwth stages did not reduce yield or biomass of adjacent crop plants, had low fecundity, and may not warrant treatment. Control may be necessary, however, to prevent yield losses if weeds arc present at high densities or to prevent establishment of uncommon species.
American Society of Agronomy
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Clay, S. A.; Kleinjan, J.; Clay, D. E.; Forcella, F.; and Batchelor, W., "Growth and Fecundity of Several Weed Species in Corn and Soybean" (2005). Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications. 189.