water quality, south dakota, runoff-fed dugouts, spring-fed sugouts, deep wells, medium-depth wells, shallow wells
This survey was conducted to determine the water quality in north central South Dakota. Twenty-one water sources from 16 different livestock operations were surveyed for this project. The water sources included five runoff-fed dugouts, 6 spring-fed dugouts, 4 deep wells (> 1000 ft), 3 medium-depth wells (100 to 500 ft) and 3 shallow wells (< 100 ft). Each water sample was initially tested with a hand-held Hanna Dist WP4 electroconductivity (EC) meter and the readings were recorded. Samples were then shipped to Servi-Tech Laboratories in Hastings, NE, where they were tested for EC, total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, pH, calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sulfate (SO4), sulfate-sulfur (SO4-S), and sodium (Na). Water quality indicators and mineral concentrations were not different over time when analyzed across all water sources or within each water source independently. Water from runoff-fed dugouts was lower (P < 0.05) in pH than water from spring-fed dugouts or wells. Well water contained greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of Cl than water from either runoff-fed or spring-fed dugouts. Potassium concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in water from runoff-fed dugouts than in water from spring-fed dugouts or well water. Estimation of water quality without testing is highly inaccurate and variable. Livestock producers should obtain water samples for determination of water quality and adjust management to account for poor-quality water sources.
Number of Pages
South Dakota State University
Copyright © 2006 South Dakota State University
Butler, Lanette and Wright, Cody L., "North Central Water Quality Survey¹" (2006). South Dakota Beef Report, 2006. 13.