Chick embryos can serve as an economical means to screen pine needle extracts for possible abortive components which affect cattle grazing alpine pastures. Lipid-like extracts from pine needles did not appear to be toxic to chick embryos, while carbohydrates components were toxic at low levels. Protein components were not screened in this study.
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Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota State University
Kamstra, L. D. and DeHaan, K. A., "Isolation of the Abortive Factor in Ponderosa Pine Needles" (1980). South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1980. 3.