Serological Evidence for the Presence of Influenza D Virus in Small Ruminants
influenza virus; type D; serology; sheep; goats; chicken; turkey
Influenza D virus (FLUDV) was isolated from diseased pigs with respiratory disease symptoms in 2011, and since then the new virus has also been spread to cattle. Little is known about the susceptibility of other agricultural animals and poultry to FLUDV. This study was designed to determine if other farm animals such as goats, sheep, chickens, and turkey are possible hosts to this newly emerging influenza virus. 648 goat and sheep serum samples and 250 chicken and turkey serum samples were collected from 141 small ruminant and 25 poultry farms from different geographical locations in the United States and Canada. Serum samples were examined using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and the sheep and goat samples were further analyzed using the serum neutralization assay. Results of this study showed FLUDV antibodies were detected in 13.5% (17/126) of the sampled sheep farms, and 5.2% (29/557) of tested sheep serum samples were positive for FLUDV antibodies. For the goat results, the FLUDV antibodies were detected in 13.3% (2/15) of the sampled farms, and 8.8% (8/91) of the tested goat serum samples were positive for FLUDV antibodies. Furthermore, all tested poultry serum samples were negative for FLUDV antibodies. Our data demonstrated that sheep and goat are susceptible to FLUDV virus and multiple states in U.S. have this virus infection already in these two species. This new finding highlights a need for future surveillance of FLUDV virus in small ruminants toward better understanding both the origin and natural reservoir of this new virus.
DOI of Published Version
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Quast, M., C. Sreenivasan, G. Sexton, A. Singrey, L. Fawcett, D. Lauer, S. Voss, S. Pollock, C.W. Cunha, J. Christopher-Hennings, E. Nelson, F. Li. 2015. Serological evidence for the presence of influenza D virus in small ruminants. Vet. Micro. 180(3-4):281-285.