Experimental Co-infection of Pigs with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 and Porcine Circovirus-2
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, pigs, Porcine circovirus-2
The role of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in the development of Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2)-associated disease (PCVAD) was investigated in 2 experimental studies. In the first, separate groups of germ-free pigs were inoculated with filtered tissue homogenate (from diseased pigs) containing PCV-2b + BVDV-1–like virus (group 1), PCV-2a + BVDV-1–like virus (group 4), BVDV-1–like virus only (group 3), or PCV-2b + BVDV-1–like virus following a BVDV vaccination protocol (group 2). This last group was used to test if BVDV vaccination would prevent clinical PCVAD in this model. Many of the inoculated pigs had mild multisystemic inflammation consistent with classic PCVAD. One vaccinated, dually inoculated pig had acute respiratory distress followed by death at 21 days postinfection. Lesions in this pig resembled the severe form of PCVAD observed in the field since the fall of 2004, suggesting a role of ruminant pestiviruses and/or vaccination in the development of this disease. In the second study, cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs were inoculated with PCV-2b and a cytopathic strain of BVDV-1 (cpBVDV-NADL) either alone or in combination. Clinical signs of PCVAD were seen in a single animal inoculated only with PCV-2b. This pig had growth retardation followed by acute respiratory distress leading to death 30 days postinfection. Pulmonary lesions in this animal were similar to those seen in the pig that died in the first study. Infection with cpBVDV-NADL did not enhance PCV-2b replication or lesion formation.
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
DOI of Published Version
Copyright © 2012 Sage
Langohr, I.M., G.W. Stevenson, E.A. Nelson, S.D. Lenz, H. and R.M. Pogranichniy. 2012. Experimental Co-Infection of Pigs with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Porcine circovirus-2. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 24(1) 51-64.