Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Civil Engineering


A continual increase in the use of concrete as a building material has greatly increased the demand for more definite knowledge of the factors that are conductive to strength and economy of construction. It has been found necessary to acquire this knowledge largely through definite and extensive experimental work under conditions that can be carefully controlled and regulated. Although a considerable amount of experimental work upon the properties and proportioning of concrete has been performed in the last decade, the conflicting statements that have been made clearly indicate that this field of research and investigation is by no means complete. This condition is particularly true of the present methods of proportioning and placing concrete in the large structures that are now being built of reinforced-concrete instead of wood or steel. Many results have been obtained, however, that are worthy of more investigation and that deserve more careful study. It is these general and sometimes indefinite conclusions that have been taken as a basis for further study. The investigation has been conducted in two main parts: A. Study of Aggregates. 1. Volume of Combined Aggregate 2. Use of Colorimetric Test 3. Sieve Analysis and Calculation of Surface Area 4. Determination of the amount of voids and variation in the amount of sand in bank run gravel. 5. Fineness Modulus B. Methods of Proportioning 1. Void Measurement 2. Maximum Density or Ideal Curve 3. Surface Area 4. Fineness Modulus 5. Iowa State Highway Commission C. Discussion of the Various Methods D. Conclusion

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South Dakota State College