Roles of the Glycogen-binding Domain and Snf4 in Glucose Inhibition of SNF1 Protein Kinase

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The SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family is required for adaptation to metabolic stress and energy homeostasis. The γ subunit of AMPK binds AMP and ATP, and mutations that affect binding cause human disease. We have here addressed the role of the Snf4 (γ) subunit in regulating SNF1 protein kinase in response to glucose availability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies of mutant cells lacking Snf4 suggested that Snf4 counteracts autoinhibition by the C-terminal sequence of the Snf1 catalytic subunit but is dispensable for glucose regulation, and AMP does not activate SNF1 in vitro. We first introduced substitutions at sites that, in AMPK, contribute to nucleotide binding and regulation. Mutations at several sites relieved glucose inhibition of SNF1, as judged by catalytic activity, phosphorylation of the activation-loop Thr-210, and growth assays, although analogs of the severe human mutations R531G/Q had little effect. We further showed that alterations of Snf4 residues that interact with the glycogen-binding domain (GBD) of the β subunit strongly relieved glucose inhibition. Finally, substitutions in the GBD of the Gal83 β subunit that are predicted to disrupt interactions with Snf4 and also complete deletion of the GBD similarly relieved glucose inhibition of SNF1. Analysis of mutant cells lacking glycogen synthase showed that regulation of SNF1 is normal in the absence of glycogen. These findings reveal novel roles for Snf4 and the GBD in regulation of SNF1.

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Journal of Biological Chemistry





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