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Document Type

DNP - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)


Graduate Nursing

First Advisor

Brandi Pravecek


urine, contamination, urinary tract infection, emergency department, clean catch


Introduction: The purpose of the project was to decrease urine contamination rates in the emergency department (ED) in order to decease costs and unnecessary antibiotic use.
Evidence Summary: Methods to decease urine contamination exist and have been established by the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA). IDSA recommendations include placing urine in urine collection vacuum containers and transporting specimens to the laboratory within 30 minutes of collection. Also, the clean catch method can be used to collect urine as long as patients are able to follow instructions physically and cognitively. Instructions given via illustrations have also been proven helpful as they transcend language barriers and illiteracy rates.
Gaps: Gaps in the literature included lack of evidence regarding the use of urine collections kits/bundles, lack of adult only and male only, and lack of focus on the role of the advanced practice registered nurse (APRN).
Recommendations for Practice: A uniform process of urine collection following the latest guidelines is needed. Skin cleansing, verbal and written education for nurses, patient education illustrations, and vacuum containers to transport urine are key components.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Urine -- Analysis.
Urinary tract infections.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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