Document Type

DNP - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)


Graduate Nursing

First Advisor

Robin Arends

Second Advisor

Nicole Gibson


homeless shelter staff, opioid education, naloxone distribution


Background/Purpose: Opioid overdose can occur in anyone who uses illicit drugs, but relationship correlation exists between homelessness and illicit drug use. Between March 2019 and March 2020, 92 deaths were attributed to opioids in the DNP Project state. Methods: Naloxone education was given to a single population of homeless shelter staff. An Opioid Overdose Attitude Scale (OOAS) and Opioid Overdose Knowledge Scale (OOKS) were administered to the sample prior to education, immediately after education, and 3 months after education.
Results: OOAS and OOKS changes between surveys as a whole were not statistically significant (p=0.14; p=0.25). Individual components of the surveys did show statistical significance. OOKS pre-education and immediate post education risk and naloxone questions were statistically significant (p=0.03, p=0.02). OOAS competency for preeducation to immediate post-education (p=0.00075) and pre-education to 3-month post (p=0.017) was statistically significant.
Discussion: This specific statewide naloxone program showed an increase in baseline knowledge and a sustained increase in survey scores over time. This indicates that the teaching method is effective in certain areas but requires tailoring to the specific audience to improve efficacy of the education. Implications for Practice: This DNP Project has the potential to equip high-risk environments with lifesaving treatment.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Opioids -- Overdose -- Treatment -- Study and teaching.
Drugs -- Overdose -- Treatment -- Study and teaching.
Naloxone -- Therapeutic use.
Narcotic antagonists -- Therapeutic use.
Shelters for the homeless.
Shelters for the homeless -- Employees.


South Dakota State University


Copyright © 2021 Hayley E. Rasmussen