Pregnancy Survey of Smoking and Alcohol Use in South Dakota American Indian and White Mothers

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INTRODUCTION: American Indian populations are believed to have relatively high tobacco use and alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy compared with other populations despite little evidence.

METHODS: Population-based survey distributed 2-6 months postpartum to 1,814 South Dakota mothers having a live birth in 2014. Prevalence of self-reported smoking and alcohol use before and during pregnancy were calculated for American Indian and white mothers and AORs were determined controlling for Hispanic status, marital status, age, education, and income. Analysis was completed in 2017-2018.

RESULTS: Smoking among American Indian mothers was similar to white mothers before and during pregnancy (AOR=1.60, 95% CI=0.95, 2.67 and AOR=0.67, 95% CI=0.37, 1.21, respectively). Among smokers, a higher percentage of American Indian mothers smoked less than six cigarettes/day than white mothers (AOR=6.79, 95% CI=3.21, 14.35, before and AOR=4.85, 95% CI=1.08, 21.7, during pregnancy), and American Indian mothers had greater odds of quitting (AOR=3.60, 95% CI=1.74, 7.43). No difference in relapse rates by race were found (AOR=0.57, 95% CI=0.19, 1.72). Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was less among American Indian than white mothers (AOR=0.53 95% CI=0.30, 0.94), and among those who drank no differences by race in drinks/week were observed (AOR for American Indians drinking more than four drinks/week=1.20, 95% CI=0.56, 2.55) or binge drinking (AOR=1.50, 95% CI=0.75, 3.04). Rates of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and topics covered by healthcare providers during prenatal visits did not differ by race.

CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for covariates, no differences by race in smoking rates before or during pregnancy were observed and American Indian mothers who smoked were more likely to smoke fewer cigarettes and quit smoking during pregnancy than white mothers. Lower alcohol consumption among American Indian mothers before pregnancy challenges the commonly held belief of elevated alcohol consumption among American Indians compared with other races.

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American Journal of Preventive Medicine





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