Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Animal Science

First Advisor

Crystal L. Levesque


Phase feeding, piglet survival, weaned pig performance


A total of 51 gilts in 6 blocks were randomly assigned to one of 3 feeding regimens: Constant (Constant-f), 2.21 kg/d of a standard diet from breeding to d 112 of gestation (1.7 g Lys/kcal ME; 3276 kcal ME/kg); Bump feeding (Bump-f), the standard diet at 2.21 kg/d from breeding to d 89 and 2.61 kg/d from d 90 - 112; Phase feeding (Phase-f ), 2.21 kg/d from breeding to d 89 (1.5 g Lys/kcal ME; 3275 kcal ME/kg) and 2.61 kg/d from d 90 - 112 (2.1 g Lys/Kcal ME; 3290 Kcal ME/kg) over 2 reproductive cycles. Sows received a common lactation diet from d 113 to weaning and weaned pigs received common diets post weaning. To assess gilt performance, BW, back fat, litter size, colostrum protein content and lactation feed intake were measured. To assess piglet quality and robustness, cord blood cortisol, liver and muscle glycogen at birth, immunocrit, serum IGF-1 concentrations, piglet birth weight distribution, weekly BW, and weaned pig feed intake and immune responses were measured. Data were analyzed in SAS using the Mixed and Correlation procedures in a completely randomized block design with gilt or sow as the experimental unit. Feeding regimen had minimal effects on overall gilt and sow performance. In parity 1, piglets from Phase-f gilts tended to have greater (P = 0.13) cord blood cortisol than piglets from Bump-f and Constant-f sows, tended to have a higher proportion (P = 0.07) of piglets born alive in a mid-body weight category than piglets from Bump-f sows and weaned pigs from Phase-f sows consumed more feed (P = 0.03) than weaned pigs from Constant-f sows when exposed to a nutritional stressor. In Parity 2, piglets from Phase-f sows tended (P = 0.07) to gain more weight in week 3 of lactation, gained more weight post wean (P = 0.05), and pigs from Phase-f sows tended to consume more feed (P = 0.07) when exposed to a nutritional stressor than pigs from Constant-f and Bump-f sows. Piglets and weaned pigs from Phase-f sows had better performance than those from Bump-f and Constant-f sows.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Sows -- Feeding and feeds.
Sows -- Nutrition.
Sows -- Reproduction.
Swine -- Feeding and feeds.
Swine -- Nutrition.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 89-108)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright