Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

John G. Parsons


Ice cream dates back to before the Roman Empire (6), and since has remained a world favorite. In the U.S., consumption of ice cream has been about 8.3 kg per capita per year since 1950 (58). In 1950, the frozen dessert industry used approximately 5.9% of the milk supply; however in 1977 this had increased to 9.4% (58). This represents a sizable portion of the U.S. dairy industry, which in 1978 used 6.2 million metric tons of milk equivalents to produce 4.6 billion liters of frozen desserts, including 3.1 billion liters of ice cream (2). Today, the ice cream industry is largely concerned with ingredient costs, such as milk solids, sugar, milkfat, etc., and possibly losing ice cream's reputation as a nutritious and natural product (30). With the increased cost of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) from $0.44/per kg to $1.72/per kg over the last ten years, the ice cream manufacturer is looking for a less costly source of milk solids nonfat (MSNF). There have been many new products developed which are suitable for incorporation into dairy products and other foods. Currently, whey has become available in greater quantities with improved quality and flavor (80). With the cost of dry whole whey one third that of NFDM (5), there has been great interest in the increased usage of this milk solids source as a replacement for NFDM. The use of whey as a NFDM replacer provides a new opportunity for the ice cream industry to reduce production costs and reduce the pollution of our waterways. The increased eutrophication from dumping whey into lakes, rivers and streams has caused losses of fish and wildlife (48, 53, 55). This fact and increased pressure from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has caused the dairy industry to promote whey as a possible replacement of NFDM. This concern over whey utilization has promoted the development of new processing methods resulting in better quality dry products having increased application and nutritional value (17, 26, 48). Today whey solids, such as delactosed protein concentrates, demineralized dry whey and lactose hydrolyzed whey products, are no longer mere by-products of the cheese industry, but are nutritious protein sources. The Federal Standards of Identity (FSID) state that ice cream must contain at least 10% milk fat and at least 20% milk solids, of which whey can replace up to 25% of the MSNF in the ice cream (6). The economic advantages and availability ·of whey prompted the International Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers (IAICM) on April 12, 1977 to request from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) a change in the FSID on ice cream (22). Under the proposed standards substitution of any "safe and suitable" ingredient would be allowed if a minimum of 2.7% protein was maintained in the final product (22). This would allow the use of other dairy derived ingredients as MSNF sources in ice cream. However, in July, 1977, the proposed standards were rejected by the FDA (23). Since then the question has been reopened many times without a revocation of the July, 1977 decision being the result (24, 25). FDA's major concern and reason for rejection was that with some formulations of ice cream mix the\nutritional quality may suffer (24, 25). The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of using substitute milk derived ingredients as replacements for NFDM as milk solids in ice cream. Ingredients used were dried whey and casein derivatives. Ice creams made from these ingredients were analyzed for composition and flavor. Samples of these ice creams were also evaluated by a consumer group consisting of randomly selected families from Brookings.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Ice cream, ices, etc


Includes bibliographical references (pages 54-59)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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