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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Lloyd E. Metzger


Excess consumption of fat and sodium are considered potential health threats. Process cheese (PC) is one of the major sources of dietary fat and sodium. In order to reduce the amount of dietary fat and sodium in PC, the current study focused on improving the quality of low fat and reduced sodium PC's. Reducing the fat and sodium content of PC typically results in poor functional and sensory characteristics. The first objective of the present study was to develop a low fat PC with improved functional properties using xylitol as a fat replacer. Three different low fat PC formulations were prepared with 0, 2, and 4% xylitol. All three PC formulations were formulated to contain 5% fat. Each treatment was manufactured in triplicate. Rheological characteristics including elastic modulus (G'), viscous modulus (G") and temperature at Tanδ = l were determined using dynamic stress rheometry (DSR). The hardness of the samples was determined with texture profile analysis (TP A). The elastic (G') and viscous (G") moduli results obtained with DSR showed a significant difference between the control and xylitol containing treatments in the temperature range of 30 to 80°C. The meltability index temperature was not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the three treatments. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) demonstrated that the addition of xylitol significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the hardness of low fat PC. On the basis of TPA and DSR data obtained in this study, it was determined that xylitol addition improves the functional properties of low fat PC. The second objective of the present study was to develop an acceptable quality full fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), and low fat (LF) PC formulations with 50% reduced sodium content. In order to manufacture a 50% reduced sodium PC with in each of the three fat categories (FF, RF, and LF), the current study approached a step by step sodium reduction method. Initially the salt content of the PC formulations was reduced-until significant sensory differences were identified within each fat category. Subsequently, commercially available salt substitutes (SOLO®, NeutralFres®, Dsalt, Nutek: 14500 and Nutek: 14510), bitterness blockers (Metallic Blocker-I, Metallic Blocker-2, caramel solution, sucrose, sodium gluconate) and use of potassium citrate as an emulsifying salt were evaluated in 50% reduced sodium formulations. A triangle test was determine if there was a significant difference in sensory characteristics between the control PC (1540 mg Na/I00g) and 50% reduced sodium PC at all three fat levels. The full fat reduced sodium (FFRS) and reduced fat reduced sodium (RFRS) formulations containing NuTek-14510 and sodium gluconate were not significantly different (P>0.05) from their respective control PC. However, the low-fat- reduced-sodium (LFRS) formulation containing Nutek-14510, xylitol, and sodium gluconate was significantly different (P

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Process cheese
Food -- Fat content
Food -- Sodium content


Includes bibliographical references (pages 79-87)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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