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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Vikram V. Mistry


Cheese milk was standardized (casein-to-fat ratio of 0.7) by blending 0.64%-fat milk and 34.5%-fat cream. Cream was homogenized at 3 .5 MPa (500 psi) (H05), 6.9 MPa (1,000 psi) (Hl0) or 10.4 MPa (1,500 psi) (H15) in the first stage and 3.5 MPa (500 psi) in the second stage. For control (CO) cream was not homogenized. Rennet clotting time was similar among treatments but the rate of curd firming reduced from 26.75 min for CO to 20.95 min for H15. Curd firmness at 60 min was 25.0, 27.7, 27.1 and 30.6 mm, for CO, H05, Hl0 and H15 respectively. Cheese moisture ranged from 37.90% (CO) to 39.27% (H15), fat in dry matter from 52.82% (H15) to 54.14% (H05) and salt in moisture phase of cheese from 2.72 (CO) to 4.50% (H15). The moisture (37%) and salt (1.5%) adjusted yield increased by 1.42, 3.44 and 3.85% in H05, Hl0 and H15, respectively over CO. Fat recovery in cheese increased with homogenization pressure except for Hl 5. Protein recovery was the highest for Hl 5. Cheese meltability, expressed as percent change in height of cheese on applying constant force at 60°C in 10s, showed a significant interaction between treatment and age. The rate of increase in meltability over age was higher for homogenized treatments, but decreased for all treatments from 12 to 24 wk except for H15. Free-oil in 1-wk old cheeses was lowest in HlO (13 .8%), highest in HOS (16.7%) and similar in H15 (15.1 %) to that in CO (15.2%). Free-oil also increased in all treatments with age. Cheese hardness was not influenced by treatment but it decreased with age. All cheeses with homogenized cream had improved body and texture and flavor scores than CO, but had no effect on flavor intensity. The acid-soluble protein content of cheese increased with age as expected. Homogenization of cream at 6.9/3 .5 MPa (1000/500 psi) was optimal for enhancing Cheddar cheese yield and functionality.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Cheddar cheese
Homogenized milk


Includes bibliographical references (pages 43-56)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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