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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Ashraf Hassan

Second Advisor

Lloyd Metzger


The objective of this work was to utilize salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3 week old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was utilized. Since salt reduction causes undesirable physicochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar was used in making process cheese. In the first study, an exopolysaccharides (EPS) producing culture (JFR) was used to reduce rigidity and improve meltability of young Cheddar cheese. A non-BPS-producing culture (DVS) was applied in making control cheese. To obtain similar composition in the EPS - positive and negative Cheddar cheeses, the making protocol was modified in the later cheese to increase its moisture level. Three week old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS+ PCF and EPS- PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1 % salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RV A) at 1000 rpm, heated at 95°C for 3 minutes, and process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the BPS positive and negative process cheeses (P>0.05).The texture profile analysis showed that BPS+ PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy (P≤0.05) than BPS- PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability in BPS+ PCF were higher (P≤0.05) than those in BPSPCF, whereas the emulsification time was shorter (P≤0.05) in the former cheese. In the second study, same non-BPS-producing culture (DYS) was used in making control cheese. In addition, three different treatments were employed: BPS+ Cheddar cheese made from milk pasteurized after addition of the bulk BPS-containing culture, BPS+HCl-Cheddar cheese made from milk containing homogenized pasteurized cream and skim milk pasteurized after the addition of bulk BPS-containing culture; and BPS+HC2-Cheddar cheese made from milk containing homogenized cream and skim milk pasteurized together after addition of the bulk BPS-containing culture. These cheeses were used in the manufacture of the following processing cheeses respectively: BPSPCF, BPS+ PCF, BPS+HCl - PCF, and BPS+HC2 - PCF. Results showed that EPS+HCl - PCF was the softest, and least gummy and chewy (P≤0.05) among all cheeses. EPS+ PCF had the highest end apparent viscosity while EPS+HC2 - PCF had the shortest emulsification time (P≤0.05). In conclusion, process cheese, containing up to 13% salt whey, with improved textural and melting properties could be made from young BPS-positive Cheddar cheese. Exopolysaccharides can be successfully used as an ingredient to improve textural and functional properties of cheese.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Process cheese
Cheddar cheese
Microbial exopolysaccharides


Includes bibliographical references (pages 45-60)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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