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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Robert J. Baer


Vanilla ice creams were made with two levels of milk fat (11 or 16%), two levels of homogenization (single or double), two levels of stabilizer-emulsifier blend (0.35 or 0.43%), 11 % milk solids-not-fat (MSNF), 13% sucrose, and 3% com syrup solids. Eight batches of ice cream mixes were made and each batch represented one treatment. Three replications were performed for a total of 24 ice creams manufactured. Treatments 1, 2, 5, and 6 contained 11 % milk fat and treatments 3, 4, 7, and 8 contained 16% milk fat. Treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4 contained 0.35% stabilizer-emulsifier blend and treatments 5, 6, 7, and 8 contained 0.43%. Mixes were made by heating the liquid ingredients (cream and water) at 46 C. Other ingredients were mixed in the order of nonfat dry milk, sucrose, com syrup solids (36 dextrose equivalent), and stabilizer-emulsifier blend. The stabilizer-emulsifier blend was ·mixed with sucrose prior to liquefication to ensure proper mixing. Mixes were pasteurized at 71 C for 30 minutes and single homogenized (Tl, T3, T5, and T7) at 60 C with 141 kg/cm2 pressure on the first stage and 35 kg/cm2 pressure on the second. Treatments 2, 4, 6, and 8 were homogenized twice (double homogenized) at 141 kg/cm2 and 35 kg/cm2• Mixes were aged overnight at 3°C, frozen with a soft serve freezer, and hardened at -~5 to -27°C. Texture of ice creams were evaluated at 1 and 10 weeks by direct microscopic examination of ice crystal size and a trained sensory panel. Milk fat level influenced ice cream mix total solids, viscosity, freezing point, and draw temperature. The higher level (16%) of milk fat increased ice crystal size. It also effected the texture scores (iciness, coldness intensity, creaminess, and overall texture acceptance) and vanilla flavor intensity of ice creams. Double homogenization reduced ice crystal size. Different levels of homogenization or stabilizer-emulsifier blend did not effect the sensory scores of ice creams. Ice crystals grew larger over time and affected the texture scores of ice creams.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Ice cream. ices. etc.
Food texture
Homogenized milk


Includes bibliographical references (pages 42-50)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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