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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Vikram V. Mistry


Five replicates of reduced fat Mozzarella cheese were manufactured involving the following treatments: 0.5% fat milk standardized with unhomogenized cream (Cl), 0.5% fat milk standardized with homogenized cream (C2), 0.5% fat milk with 3% ultrafiltered sweet buttermilk (UBM) and homogenized cream (JBM), and 0.5% fat milk with 5% UBM and homogenized cream (SBM). Two more treatments containing 3 and 5% ultrafiltered skim milk (USM) added to 0.5% fat milk and standardized with homogenized cream (JSM and SSM) were also included to compare with treatments containing UBM on an equal total solids basis. Targeted ratio of casein to fat in cheese milks was 2.40 Curds were cheddared to a pH of 5.1 to 5.3, iced overnight, hand stretched and molded, brined for 10.5 h, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4°C for 5 wk. Fat in cheeses ranged from 11.23 (5BM) to 12.71% (C2), protein from 31.38 (5BM) to 32.94% (5SM), and moisture from 48.14 (5SM) to 50.52% (5BM). There was a 49.0% reduction in free oil (from 8.8% for Cl cheeses to 4.5% for C2 cheeses) with homogenization of cream. Addition of UBM reduced free oil further (3.9% and 3.8% for 3BM and 5BM cheeses, respectively). Free oil increased (P < 0.05) in all treatments over time. Homogenization of cream did not affect meltability of cheeses, but addition of UBM lowered it. Melt was reduced from 8.2 cm for cheeses from Cl to 7.1 cm for cheeses from 3BM and 6.5 cm for cheeses from 5BM. Cheeses from 5BM were softer than other cheeses and had a better body and texture score though it was not comparable to a commercial reference part skim Mozzarella cheese. Hardness and body and texture scores did not change during the storage period for all cheeses. Micrographs of C2 cheeses revealed fat globules smaller and more in number as compared to the Cl cheeses. The UBM cheeses had a spongy and open protein matrix. The use of UBM has potential to improve the quality of reduced fat Mozzarella cheese.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Food -- Fat content


Includes bibliographical references (pages 40-47)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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