Off-campus South Dakota State University users: To download campus access theses, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your South Dakota State University ID and password.

Non-South Dakota State University users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis through interlibrary loan.

Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Robert J. Baer


Vanilla ice cream was made with a mix composition of 10.5% milk fat, 10.5% milk solids-not-fat, 12% beet sugar, and 4 % corn syrup solids (36 dextrose equivalent). Seven batches of ice cream mixes were made and each batch represented one treatment. Three replications were performed for a total of 21 ice creams manufactured. None of the batches made were added with stabilizer or emulsifier. The control (Treatment 1) contained 3. 78% protein. Treatments 2 and 5 were increased with 30% more protein; Treatments 3 and 6 by 60% more protein, and Treatments 4 and 7 by 90% more protein compared to Treatment 1 by addition of whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate powders, respectively. In all treatments milk fat, milk solids-not-fat, beet sugar, and corn syrup solids level were kept constant at 37% total solids. Ice cream mixes were made by heating the liquid ingredients (cream, milk, condensed skim milk, and water) to 44°C in an ice cream mix tank and beet sugar, corn syrup solids, and WPC, or MPC were added and allowed to mix for 1 Oto 15 minutes. Mixes were pasteurized at 82°C for 25 seconds and homogenized at 60°C with 141 kg/cm2 pressure on the first stage and 35 kg/cm2 pressure on the second stage. Mixes were aged overnight at 4°C, frozen with a continuous freezer, and hardened at -28°C. Milk fat content ranged from 10.52 to 10.57% and total solids from 37.00 to 37.03% and was similar for all ice cream mix treatments. Mix protein content for Treatment 1 was 3.78%, Treatment 2 was 4.90%, Treatment 5 was 4.91%, Treatments 3 and 6 were 6.05%, and Treatments 4 and 7 were 7.18%. This represented a 29.89, 60.05, 89.95, 29.63, 60.05, and 89.95% increase in protein for Treatment 2 through Treatment 7 compared to Treatment 1, respectively. Lactose content was reduced in all treatments and freezing points were increased when protein was increased in mixes. Milk protein level influenced ice cream ice crystal size and with increased protein the ice crystal size was favorably reduced in Treatments 2, 4, and 5 and was similar in Treatments 3, 6, and 7 compared to Treatment 1. At 1 week post-manufacture overall texture acceptance for all treatments was more desirable compared to Treatment 1. When evaluating all parameters, Treatment 2 with added whey protein concentrate and Treatment 5 and Treatment 6 with added milk protein concentrate were similar or improved compared to Treatment 1. It is possible to produce acceptable quality ice cream with higher levels of protein.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Ice cream, ices, etc
Food -- Protein content
Milk proteins


Includes bibliographical references (pages 34-40)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


In Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted