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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Vikram V. Mistry


Calcium plays an important role in the functional properties of cheese. Recent studies have shown that reduced calcium Mozzarella cheeses had improved softening, melting flow characteristics and higher proteolysis. The objectives of this study were to characterize the proteolysis in Mozzarella cheese at various storage periods and correlate the melt properties to the proteolysis. Another objective was to study the effects of coagulants (chymosin and the proteases derived from Cryphonectria parasitica) and starter culture on the proteolysis of reduced calcium Mozzarella cheese. Mozzarella cheeses were made by direct acidification using glucono - δ- lactone or using starter culture. Milk was preacidified using citric acid and acetic acid to a pH of 5.9 to lower the level of calcium. Reduced calcium cheeses made with this preacidified milk were compared with control cheeses made with milk without preacidification. The level of reduction of calcium in final cheeses was approximately 45%. The composition of cheeses was kept uniform by adjusting the processing conditions. Samples were analyzed on day 1, 7, 15, and 30 for proteolysis, meltability, expressible serum, and free oil. Composition of cheeses was analyzed on d 1. Proteolysis as measured by water soluble nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen, and phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen was higher in reduced calcium cheeses. The change in water soluble nitrogen was not significant in control cheeses, but significant increase was observed in reduced calcium cheeses during storage. Trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen increased over the storage period in reduced calcium cheese while the increase in phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen was not significant. Also, the proteolysis was higher in cheeses manufactured using proteases derived from Cryphonectria parasitica in comparison to the cheeses manufactured using chymosin. The melt area for reduced calcium cheeses was higher than the control cheeses. Control cheeses had higher expressible serum than that of reduced calcium cheese throughout the storage, which showed higher water-holding capacity of reduced calcium cheeses. Free oil was higher for reduced calcium cheeses.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Mozzarella cheese


Includes bibliographical references (pages 41-54)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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