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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Robert J. Baer


It has been said that frozen yogurt is one of the best new products that has happened to American enterprise, consumer eating habits, and the dairy industry (Kimbrill et al., 1990). Frozen yogurt was introduced as a new product in the early 1970s and has come a long way since its appearance (Knupp, 1979; Lassus and Selitzer, 1977; Tieszen and Baer, 1989; Urbanski, 1978). In 1977, frozen yogurt accounted for about 18% of the yogurt produced in the U.S. (12.5% hard-pack frozen yogurt and 5.4% soft-serve) (Hankin and Shields, 1980). From 198-0 to 1987, frozen yogurt production in California increased 254. 8%, compared with 20. 26% and 21. 49% for ice cream and ice milk, respectively (Meyer, 1989). In 1989, frozen yogurt was the fastest growing product in the frozen dessert category, up 200% (Meyer, 1989) and up 300% since 1986 (Friedman, 1990). The International Ice Cream Association reports that national estimates for frozen yogurt accounted for about 5% of the $9.3 billion ($465 million) Americans spent on frozen desserts (Meyer, 1989). Others estimate that frozen yogurt sales have reached $1 billion or more (Kimbrill et al., 1990; Meyer, 1989). A New York research firm believes that sales of frozen yogurt will reach $2.6 billion by 1993 (Friedman, 1990). Consumers believe that yogurt makes you live longer and improves digestion (Kimbrill et al., 1990). Frozen yogurt has found its way into America's heart. It can be found on menus in corporate cafeterias, department stores, airports, fast-food outlets, restaurants, as well as in retail outlets and grocery stores (Kimbrill et al., 1990). In 1989, grocery store's share of the sale of frozen yogurt increased from 5 to 15 or 20% and it is predicted to match retail-outlet sales (Kimbrill et al., 1990). Frozen yogurt has created an opportunity for the dairy industry. It has created a marketing category that adds to the bottom line of dairy plants (Compere, 1978). Food and dairy companies have been scrambling to get into this hot market. Many ice cream producers are manufacturing frozen yogurt, because it is an easy product to produce, since new equipment is usually not required, while others do not want to miss out on the expanding market (Meyer, 1989). It is predicted that most ice cream manufacturers will have some type of frozen yogurt product on the market soon (Kimbrill et al., 1990). This research project was divided into two studies, which included a consumer evaluation and a trained panel evaluation of frozen yogurts. Objectives of the consumer evaluation were to evaluate a new fermented whey protein concentrate for utilization in vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate frozen yogurts, to determine the acceptability of frozen yogurt with 100% replacement of milk solids-not-fat with whey protein concentrate, to determine if the proposed titratable acidity standard for frozen yogurt would be acceptable to consumers, and to provide market information on frozen yogurt for the dairy industry. Objectives of the trained panel evaluation were to evaluate a new fermented whey protein concentrate for utilization in frozen yogurt and determine the composition and acceptability of ice milks and frozen yogurts at o, 50, and 100% replacement of milk solids-not- fat with whey protein concentrate.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Frozen yogurt -- Composition
Whey products
Consumers' preferences


Includes bibliographical references (pages 67-75)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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