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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Robert J. Baer


Four emulsifiers at three levels each were tested in 2% low fat ice cream. Emulsifiers evaluated included: monoglyceride and diglyceride, polysorbate 80 blend; 40% alpha monoglyceride; 70% alpha monoglyceride; and lecithin. Use of emulsifiers produced desirable effects in low fat ice cream quality. All emulsifiers evaluated in this study improved the body and texture of low fat ice cream. All low fat ice creams containing emulsifiers, except for lecithin, obtained flavor scores similar to or higher than the control. Lower flavor scores obtained when using lecithin indicate that some emulsifiers can affect flavor. The emulsifiers increased low fat ice cream mix viscosity which is considered to be desirable. Whipping times and ice crystal sizes were reduced in all emulsified low fat ice creams. The coarse and icy sensory scores related to the averages of the actual numbers observed during direct microscopic examination of the individual ice crystals. The emulsifiers also provided an increased stability to heat shock. The level of application affected some mix and low fat ice cream parameters and had no effect on others. For instance, a maximum level of application was required to obtain a whipping ability greater than the control. However, level had no effect on ice crystal size. Therefore, an optimum level of emulsification for all low fat ice creams could not be determined. The level of application must be individually selected in order to obtain the desired effect of the emulsifier chosen to perform the task required.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Ice cream. ices. etc.
Food -- Quality
Food texture


Includes bibliographical references (pages 52-55)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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