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Biyi Chen

Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Nutritional Sciences

First Advisor

Chunyang Wang


Flavonoids have great potential in prevention of several chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the flavonoid intake levels, their major food sources, and effects of flavonoid intake on BMI from dietary data of 33 college athletes at South Dakota State University in 2011. Food intake data was from a 3-day dietary recall survey. The flavonoid intakes were calculated using Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) and USDA flavonoid databases. Correlation and multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between flavonoid consumption and BMI. The study showed the average intake of total flavonoids for 33 SDSU college athletes was about 73.13 mg/day and median was 39.43 mg/day. These values are much lower than that of a typical American populations due to the unique dietary habits of college athletes. The flavan-3-ols was the most abundant subclass, followed by flavonols, flavanones, anthocyanidins, and flavones. These rankings are consistent with findings from similar studies. The main food group sources of flavonoids were fruits, beverages, and vegetables. Top five food sources for total flavonoids were black tea, orange juice, onions, apples with skin, and blueberries. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that high consumption of cyaniding, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, gallocatechin, kaempferol, and quercetin were associated with lower BMI. So are the intakes of flavones, flavonols and total flavonoids. Multiple regression model including gender, daily calorie value, and intakes of 5 flavonoid subclasses concluded that high intakes of flavonols were associated with low BMI value. This study will prove to be useful in encouraging college athletes to achoose a balanced diet. It also laid a great foundation for future studies on health benefits of flavonoids by providing unique methodology of estimating flavonoid intake.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

College athletes -- Nutrition -- South Dakota -- Brookings
College athletes -- Nutrition
Body mass index


Includes bibliographical references (pages 50-60)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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