Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

First Advisor

Erin Cortus


Odor from swine facilities can be a nuisance to the nearby residences and communities. Shelterbelts have been shown to positively impact the downwind air quality, but the impacts are dependent on wind speed and direction, and shelterbelt configuration. The first objective of this research was to develop an empirical model of shelterbelt-induced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration reductions as a function of horizontal distance beyond a swine facility, based on data from a previous study by Hofer (2009). The Hofer (2009) study measured H2S concentrations at a swine facility at four discrete distances beyond the barn (55, 246, 510, and 805 m), two measurement heights (1 and 5.5 m), and with four shelterbelt configurations (no shelterbelt, 1-row, 2-row and 3-row). Data from this study was sorted using a data selection criteria process, resulting in 10 potential regression models. Each regression model was compared to a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed by Taylor and Starke (2006), using correlation, Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE), and line of regression analyses. While the Hofer (2009) research measured H2S, the Taylor and Starke model (2006) described odor. In this research, H2S was considered a measure of odor. A single regression model was selected using a two-step selection process with the correlation, NMSE, and line of regression values. The regression model, y = 5.7408 * x-0.48, where y is the percent H2S reduction caused by the shelterbelt and x is the distance from the barn measured in meters, was selected. The second objective of this research was to incorporate this empirical model into the South Dakota Odor Footprint Tool (SDOFT) version 4.0. The SDOFT was revised to allow user input of shelterbelts located on one or more sides of the facility. The regression model was also incorporated into the SDOFT to create revised odor annoyance-free setbacks and footprint graphs affected by shelterbelts. A demonstration of odor annoyance-free setbacks and footprint graphs for different typical swine facilities with or without shelterbelts was completed. These demonstration sites illustrate that shelterbelts have greater effect on odor closer to the shelterbelt, with only about a 20% reduction at 1,000 m downwind from the facility.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Swine -- Housing -- Odor control
Windbreaks, shelterbelts, etc
Hydrogen sulfide
Regression analysis


Includes bibliographical references (pages 52-54)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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