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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Nutritional Sciences

First Advisor

Padmanaban G. Krishnan


Naan is a high quality leavened wheat flat bread that is consumed fresh. Moderate to high protein wheat varieties (Alice white wheat variety, All-Purpose Flour and Low Protein Flour are red wheat varieties) were used in product development. The focus of the study was to explore the rheology of par-baked naan and conventional baked naan for textural and aesthetic traits. Par-baked naan has potential application for pizza crust production in the frozen food industry. Par-baked pizza crust can be employed as a ready to cook food product. The effect of conventional and par baking and storage at two different temperatures (ambient and -18 °C) of Naan was evaluated by analyzing texture, shelf life, rheological and sensory parameters. Flavor was imparted by yeast fermentation and high temperature processing. While yeast adds flavor, steam formed in the high temperature tandoor oven is the primary leavening agent. Naan was formed into a teardrop shaped disc (2-3mm thickness, 150-180 mm diameter) and applied to the inner walls of the tandoor where it was exposed to direct heat from the oven wall. The Tandoor oven generates heat in excess of 700 °F which contributes unique flavor and texture attributes in unleavened flat breads. A temperature gradient was also noted in the fully heated oven ranging from 588.5 degrees at the bottom to 722.5 degrees at the top of the cylindrical oven. Higher temperature and short time cooking yielded superior color, texture and flavor. Addition of Wheat Protein Isolates to flours improved protein content of naan. A total 5 types of flour were used namely Alice control, Alice with WPI, APF control, APF with WPI and LPF. Alice flour, APF and LPF had 15.8, 14.7 and 10.5 % of protein respectively. Alice flour and APF were fortified with WPI at 10% level. Addition of WPI in flour increased protein content of Alice flour to 21.2 % and APF to 19.9%. Protein content of naan was increased by 6-7 % by addition of WPI at the 10% level. Increasing the level of WPI helped in increasing the extensibility of naan. Water absorption was also increased with addition of WPI. The extensibility of naan was increased with addition of WPI (17.3 mm vs. 30 mm in Alice Flour). There was no significant difference in extensibility between Alice conventionally baked (17.3 mm) and Alice par-baked naan (19.8 mm). APF par-baked naan required higher force to rupture than fresh baked naan but was judged acceptable by a sensory panel. Conventionally baked naan stored at ambient temperature for 5 hours required almost twice the force to tear (Alice: 453.4 vs. 805.2 g). Shelf life at ambient temperature was 6-7 days, and 6 months when frozen. Commercial wheat protein isolates significantly increased protein content. Frozen parbaked naan, after thawing and rebaking, exhibited texture equivalent to conventionally baked naan according to the sensory panel.

Library of Congress Subject Headings



includes bibliographical references (pages 92-96).



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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